Matters relating to the crime are covered under criminal law, whereas the matters pertaining to
private affairs of citizens such as property ownership, marriage, fundamental rights, contracts,
business disputes etc. are covered under the Civil Law. This law focuses more on providing
compensation to the victims rather than giving punishments to the accused. Following are the
matters which are covered under the civil law,
Real Estate: Matters related to purchase/ sale/ renting/ leasing of property
Business or Commercial: Matters pertaining to two or more companies, employer-employee
Education: Any matter which relates to the educational institution and student-teacher
Consumer: Pertains to the sale/ purchase of goods, pricing, quality of products etc comes
under this law.
Tax: Every matter pertaining to the tax, whether individual, business or any other falls under
Entertainment: Related to the media industry including print, electronic and any other.
Contract: When two parties (individual and/ or companies) engage into some or the other
contract this law governs the contract between them and tries to resolve if there is any
breach of contract.
Tort Law: This is concerned with personal injury and civil wrongdoings done by a person or
entity to another which resulted in injury or property damage.
Constitutional and Administrative: This law governs all the matters pertaining to issues on
rulemaking, adjudication and the enforcement of regulatory orders/ agenda etc. It also
covers the provisions provided under the constitution.
Sports: Any matter related to sports bodies and/ or the sports persons are covered under
The cases under this are concerned only with private law. However, a person may file a civil lawsuit
to seek compensation for the wrongdoing and bring the wrongdoer to trial after filing a complaint in
the court. In civil law cases, the plaintiff need to prove by “preponderance of evidence”, i.e., present
the evidence which persuades the judge or jury to lean to one side as opposed to other. In this case
the “burden of proof” is less stringent and the plaintiff is only required to prove in the court that the
defendant caused damage to the plaintiff.